|  e-ISSN: 2717-641X

Volume 2 Issue 1 (June 2020)

Issue Information

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi


Issue Information

Keywords: Issue Information

Original Articles

The Relationship Between Current Balance and Economic Growth in D-8 Countries

Musa Öztürk

pp. 1 - 21   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijmer.2020.231.1


The increase in the interaction between the countries in the globalization process brought along searches for new paradigms in terms of socioeconomics and politics. One of the steps taken in this process is Developing Eight (D-8) Economic Cooperation Organization which led by Turkey. Within the scope of the study, the relationship between the current account balance and economic growth for D-8 countries is analyzed with structural breaks and causality tests. According to the findings obtained from the econometric analysis, the structural break dates in the D-8 countries are affected by the socioeconomic and political developments in the countries and the global crises. According to the causality analysis results; For Bangladesh, Malaysia and Pakistan, there is a causal relationship from current balance to economic growth. For other countries, no obvious relationship has been found. When these results are evaluated together, it is seen that the channels and coordination in which the member countries of D-8 can act together, whose population is close to 1.2 billion in total and capable of representing very wide geography, should be strengthened.

Keywords: Current Account Balance, Economic Growth, Developing Eight (D-8).

Motives and Obstacles of Turkish Joining to European Union “the Period of Justice and Development Party Governance”

Hamid Rami & Hafida Taleb

pp. 22 - 40   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijmer.2020.231.2


The Turkish government, which has since been established under the leader-ship of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, has sought to overcome and harmonize it with the models of Western nationalist countries. This was considered one of the main objectives that subsequently formed the agenda of successive Turk-ish governments with their different national and conservative trends. In this context, the most prominent stage in Turkish history in terms of the results achieved on the ground, both economically and politically, by neutralizing the military institution, as well as opening up the Kurdish minority in com-parison with previous governments, was due to the efforts of the AKP government, which in turn contributed to strengthening its candidacy for mem-bership in the European Union after the opening of negotiations in 2005.However, the failure of the EU States to admit seriously or reject Tur-key's membership has reconsidered the question of accession for both par-ties, given the accumulation of a set of historical as well as new variables on both the Turkish and European arenas.

Keywords: Turkey, EU, Justice and Development Party, European membership, Eu-ropean rejection.

The American Role in Rebuilding of State in –Post invasion Iraq (2003) 

Jabbar H. Saeed & Amer Hassan Thabit

pp. 41 - 55   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijmer.2020.231.3


The fundamental objective of this research is to make an overall assessment of the political system in post-invasion Iraq, this research taken the year 2003 as turning point, due to this year witnessed two major event, the first is the collapsed of dictator regime "Saddam regime", as it dominated for more than three decades, second, is the political changing that witnessed Iraq, where the country entered a new phase of the democratic governance and the establishing of a democratic, federal parliamentary republic system in which ensures the participation for all Iraqis. The findings of this research show that the applying of democratic regime in Iraq by the American government had brought with a dissatisfied results, the evidence is that the democratic practice had produced a political system which based on power-sharing, and sectarianism, that this led to trigger the conflicts among the political blocs, for the sake of dominating on power and resources. This is reflected negatively on the security situation of the country, in which the country never witnessed the stabilize since the occupation in 2003 up to now.

Keywords: Iraq, American Government, Federalism, Power-Sharing, Sectarianism, Division, Challenges.

Image of Western Media Abuse of Islam and Muslims in the Middle East "A Study of Western Unethical Media Practices"

Khawla Mortazawi

pp. 56 - 75   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijmer.2020.231.4


The Western media waged a fierce war against Islam and Muslims, whereby these global media to which millions of audiences are exposed in various parts of the world were drawn. Unfair and unbiased mental images aimed at building an international culture that is hostile to Islam and Muslims. Everything that is published in these means does not stem from a lack of information or a misunderstanding of the truth about Islam, but rather a bias and prejudice that focuses on the concept of war between the West and Islam. Researchers and scholars have differed in determining the reasons that Western media continue to reproduce stereotypes prejudicial against Islam and Muslims and strive to embed them in collective consciousness or in internal Islamic consciousness, some of them see that the western heritage that abounds through the accumulated hostility throughout the ages of Islam and Muslims is what drives these means To take more negative attitudes directed at, and others view that the source of the western distortion of the image of Islam and Muslims is the specific type of knowledge that extends its roots to religious and ethnic animosity towards this religion and its associates. According to the book (The Pranksters) of the American Communication World, Dr. Jack Shaheen, who studied and analyzed 900 American films, was produced after the events of September 11, 2011; he came to the conclusion that Muslims in the Western media are photographed according to the most rough and negative mental categories, and ended up They are divided, according to the content of these films, into four divisions, namely: luxurious oil sheikhs, terrorists, bombers, greedy traffickers, villains with swastikas. The formation of negative news, opinions, and mental images in the Western media, as it is anywhere in the world, follows specific rules and frameworks through the values, customs and traditions of the media outlets belonging to the media, and most of the media in Western countries are special means aimed at making a profit Material in any way, and as a result, these means cannot deviate from the negative mental image that the West thinks of Islam and Muslims, this distorted image that was formed due to a number of factors, which is the control of world Zionism over the majority of Western media, the Crusades that cemented the idea of backward Arabs and the brutality of Muslims, influenced by the negative aspects of the colonial era, the writings of orientalists that characterized Islam as fanaticism and terrorism, the contempt of women, the refusal and lack of democracy, Restricting to talking about Christian and Judaic ethics in American and European society as sublime morals worthy of following, and portraying Islamic morals in a repulsive manner.

Keywords: Western Media, Stereotype, Mental image, Ethics, Media.

The Constant and Variable in Trump's Middle East Policy 

Shaima Marouf Farhan

pp. 76 - 91   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijmer.2020.231.5


It is difficult to say for sure what US President Donald Trump intends during his assumption of the US presidential administration for the next four years. The electoral statements differ completely from the state’s administration in light of the existence of institutions that guarantee the performance of the United States of America. There are lobbies and official state institutions that are difficult to ignore in the president’s policy especially when The matter concerns the important interests of the United States of America, including strategic alliances, without that meaning that the American President does not have a margin for freedom of movement, especially with regard to setting strategic priorities and setting a clear strategic vision consistent with Supreme objectives of the United States of America.As far as Trump’s policy toward the Middle East is concerned, it is known that every president who reaches power in the United States of America has a set of principles and goals that he tries to achieve during his presidency, and these goals and principles are part of the president’s strategy and since the initial results announced the candidate’s victory Republican "Donald Trump" in the American presidential elections, controversy erupted inside and outside the United States of America about the personal nature of President Trump, and the contents of his political speech, whether in relation to domestic or foreign policy and what are the constants and variables in his foreign policy We are looking forward to the countries of the world, especially the Middle East, that are the subject of our research. It is the goal of domination, strengthening the United States' position globally, and protecting Israel's security. One of the constants in the US strategy, along with another set of tactical targets that can be changed according to regional environment variables.

Keywords: : Foreign policy, Americas foreign policy, Meddle East.

Human Rights Violations in Egypt and the Response of UN agencies "Post Arab Spring"

Sabeel Ahmad Naeem

pp. 92 - 99   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijmer.2020.231.6


The ongoing human rights violations are the most challenging issue for the global community to curb. There are certain human rights violations that create disturbance in whole region. After Arab spring the region of Middle East caught up in the tornado of human rights violations. We have the case of Arab republic of Egypt where Human rights abuses are on its peak. After Arab Spring the democratic process prospered but soon it was halted by Military establishment of Egypt. The citizens under Sisi regime face severe Human rights violations, they are abducted, tortured, rape and the detainees are not given basic health facilities, the judiciary is politicized and political activist killings are regular now. The United Nations is the world biggest organizations that claims and have the infrastructure to spread peace and stability in such regions. Especially when it comes to Human rights abuses, there is only UN and its member states that can enforce the government to provide the basic Human rights to its people. The research paper shows what violations are being done and what role United Nations can play to prevent these violations.

Keywords: Human Rights, Egypt, United nations, Arab Spring.

The role of education in promoting the national identity in the Middle East: "Iraq a model"

Muna H. Obaid

pp. 100 - 118   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijmer.2020.231.7


Education is considered the base for formation and construction of the personality of human being and its refinement. there is no value of education without identity. with the openness of the media and the level of social media, effective and dominate cultures ply negative and dangerous role in blocking the national identity, strengthen national belonging, and pride its values. Therefore, there is a responsibility must be carry to get efforts up to bring our children back to their national identity, pride and strengthen their ties, which should receive most attention by educational institutions, educational policies, decision makers, the official media and the society as a whole, individuals, groups and institutions, and find ways to preserve then and confront the dangers of in to larine. The university as a scientific institution concerned with the formation of important generation to be relied upon in future, its plans and dictions should not depart from the reality of societal problems affecting the performance and effectiveness of the university in achieving its aims in educating and preparing citizens who believe in their national identity.

Keywords: education, national identity, educational institutions, educational policies.

The Turkish regional role in the Arab Mashreq

Sarab Jabbar Khorsheed

pp. 119 - 126   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijmer.2020.231.8


Ataturk sought to direct Turkey's helm to the West, and to move away from its traditional ties with the Islamic world, and it is the same trend that he continued from behind him to rule Turkey for many years. Turkey's ties with the United States were also strengthened during the Cold War period, because Washington needed Turkey's strategic position in light of its conflict with the former Soviet Union, which enabled Turkey to obtain membership of NATO to become the only Muslim-majority country in this alliance. However, the role of Turkey in the Arab and Islamic world reappeared strongly with the arrival of the Justice and Development Party to rule in 2002, as the leaders and thinkers of the party adopted an approach based on the necessity to revive the Islamic role of Turkey, which has been neglected and neglected since the era of Ataturk. The significant economic growth that the party was able to achieve in Turkey from 2002 to 2017, as the gross domestic product increased three times what it was before the party came to power, also contributed to Turkey's aspiration for wider economic and political relations in the Arab region

Keywords: Arab Orient, Turkiye, Arab World, Regional Role, Arab Countries.

Social Integration of Syrian Refugees Under Temporary Protection: The Example of Reyhanlı

Ali Ünsal

pp. 127 - 140


With the prolongation of the civil war in Syria, the Syrian asylum-seekers who were initially under the temporary protection status, later became permanent. There are approximately 4 million Syrian refugees in Turkey. These asylum seekers, especially those who stay outside the shelter areas, face serious economic and social problems. However, they experience extreme difficulties in terms of adaptation and integration. The aim of this study is to find solutions to the problems of Syrian refugees under Temporary Protection, based on Reyhanlı district. The adaptation problem faced here is a big problem not only for asylum seekers but also for the local people living in the district. Within the scope of the adaptation problem and the integration study, interviews (interviews) were conducted with 41 Syrian Refugees under Temporary Protection and 30 local people. Based on this, we can see that the problems increase with the prolongation of the visiting time. The adaptation process and integration here is a complex roadmap that requires a great effort.

Keywords: Temporary Protection, Integration, Reyhanlı, Refugee, Syria, Integration.