|  e-ISSN: 2717-641X

Volume 2 Issue 2 (December 2020)

Issue Information

Issue Information

pp. i - vi



Original Articles

Human Rights and Its Associate With Transitional Justice: Libyan Situation as a Model

Khaled A. Tumi

pp. 1 - 14   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijmer.2020.245.1


This study presents seven basic topics; The rooting methodology for the subject of the study. Taking into consideration the analysis of the status of the Human Rights and its associate with Transitional Justice in the Libyan Situation, and because Libya is as a peaceful society in its origin; Exhausted by grave human rights violations, its social fabric was shattered, in addition to the severe political division that society suffers today. Inevitably led to instability, as well as corruption rooted in all state institutions; This is without any doubt an impediment to the easily and Smoothly implementation of transitional justice. Due to that; Transitional justice, the recognition of crimes and violations, and compensation to victims are no longer limited to the legacy of the former regime only, after the state of division, instability and wars that the country witnessed after the revolution, and the resulting violations and grievances. Therefore; The problematic of this study is represented in two important questions. First: Is there justice other than the traditional justice that societies know..?. Second: Is transitional justice a special kind, or is it a type of traditional justice..?, Thus the importance of this study brighten up to show the most important factors of instability in Libya today, which is due to the neglect of the past full of violations, and the huge legacy of grievances, and the violations and grievances that it suffered during the nine years of the revolution, and that caused deep psychological wounds. After the revolution, Libyan society found itself in front of consequences without being able to confront them. Despite the issuance of laws regulating the transitional phase as Law No. (17) of 2012, Issued by the National Transitional Council on establishing rules for national reconciliation and transitional justice, which was amended by Law No. Law No. (41) of 2012.

Keywords: Human Rights, Transitional Justice, Transitional National Council, Libyan Society, Libyan Legislation.

Russia’s Foreign Policy Towards Syria A Post Arab Spring Study

Sabeel Ahmad Naeem

pp. 15 - 24   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijmer.2020.245.2


Russia has always played an active role in the world politics. Under the Administration of Vladimir Putin, Russia is determined to achieve its pride as one of the major powers again. The Arab Spring resulted in various Civil and Proxy Wars in the middle east, the Republic of Syria is one of them that suffered. On the request of Bashar -al Assad Russia intervened in Syria. The decision of intervention in Syria played an important role for the Russian politics on International Stage. Despite the presence of U.S and other factors, Russia assisted the Bashar al-Assad for various reasons. Russia admires the geopolitical importance of its only all Syria in the middle east. In do so Moscow halted all the opposition to succeed in Syria. Russia‟s policy for Syria proved to be a reemergence policy in the global politics for Russia.

Keywords: Russia, Syria, Foreign Policy, Arab Spring

The Usage of Turkey's Soft Power and National Interest

Gherieb Hakim

pp. 25 - 41   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijmer.2020.245.3


Turkey is one of the regional powers that remarkably adopted soft power in its foreign policy, especially during the last two decades; notwithstanding, the considerable impact of soft power on low and high politics regionally and internationally. This has been a useful tool for Turkey to reinforce its status and achieve its goals according the internal and external dynamics, such as, accession of justice and development party to power, Arab springs since 2011 and the attempted coup in 2016.  

This study contributes through a realist analysis of soft power’s raison d’être; in addition, to the advantages it brings to Turkey’s changing environment, not to mention, the thrust toward this choice in reaching goals and interests.


Keywords: Soft power, foreign policy, Arab spring, Turkey, national interest, regional and international changes

The 1967 Arab-Israeli War And Its Repercussions On The Palestinian National Project

Muhammad M. Shtaiwi

pp. 42 - 56   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijmer.2020.245.4


The This study aimed to investigate the repercussions of the 1967 Arab-Israeli war and its repercussions on the Palestinian national project, in light of the variation in Palestinian and Arab visions of the means of liberation. The main problem of the study is the divergent views on the Palestinian National Project, where people were divided between the vision of comprehensive national liberation for Greater Palestine from the sea to the river, and the vision of partial and possibly interim national liberation for small Palestine (West Bank and Gaza Strip). The researcher used the analytical historical approach through tracking the events of the 1967 war, studying the available documents, in addition to the documents of the Palestinian national project, what historians and experts wrote, and interviewing the leaders of the Palestinian factions and Palestinian political analysts to reach the facts about the implications of the setback to the Palestinian National Project and trying to analyze it to reach the questions of the study. The study concluded that the Palestinian national project turned into different factional projects, after the PLO abandoned the armed struggle and recognized the State of Israel on the land occupied in 1948. The study concluded that the reasons and factors that led to the retreat of the Palestinian National Project relate to the Western support for the occupation and the field reality that was imposed by force, the Arab and Islamic abandonment of the liberation of Palestine, the exclusion of the military option in favor of the political option, and the Palestinian internal division and rivalry. The study recommended working to change the existing reality, through a comprehensive national reconciliation program, based on political partnership, in which the political vision and resistance unite, in addition to restoring the Arab and Islamic dimensions of the Palestinian cause to save the Palestinian National Project, which is the liberation of the Palestinian land with its known historical area.

Keywords: National project, Setback war, National charter, Factional projects, Reconciliation program.

The New Coronavirus Pandemic And Collective Fear Infection in the Middle East

Amel Tsouria Guelai

pp. 57 - 67   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijmer.2020.245.5


The new Coronavirus has become the subject of the hour now on the Middle Eastern and international media as a whole after this pandemic swept the word, reaping with it a terrifying number of lives at a time when the Middle East region was not ready to face such a virus, especially in light of all the conflicts that countries have been living in recently. However, this current situation is not the first epidemiological experiment for the Middle East as the region has witnessed throughout its long historical path a succession of a wave of diseases and epidemics that are still found in the collective memory of the community. Accordingly, this study aims to shed light on that historical period and to perform an analytical reading of the impact of the Coronavirus virus epidemic by talking about collective fear and its causes by examining people's reactions, which represent a general picture of the pattern of perception, thinking, and methods dealing with these difficult psychological and social terms as well as to address the impact of the media and social media in these current circumstances.

Keywords: Coronavirus, Epidemic, Pandemic, Collective fear, The media, Middle-East.

Conceptual Art in the Context of the Iranıan Revolution and the Art of Shirin Neshat

Hatice Dönmez Aydın

pp. 68 - 79   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijmer.2020.245.6


Migration and the situations it has created have undoubtedly an impact on art and artist as well as on every individual. In this context, Shirin Neshat, the main subject of the study, can be considered as a good example. The regime changes in Iran deeply affected Shirin Neshat and led him to a very foreign environment, namely the United States. In the process of creation in America, it is between two opposing views of life. It is possible to see this clearly in his work. Indeed, these experiences constitute the conceptual infrastructure of Shirin Neshat's work. In this study, applied studies on migration, identity and belonging situations are examined. In addition, selected works in Shirin Neshat's context and conceptual art and how different application methods are handled in the context of conceptual art are discussed.

Keywords: Art, Conceptual Art, Migration, Shirin Neshat.

Deconstructing Yemen’s Civil War: Competing Interests of Regional Actors and Prospects for Peace

Zakir Ullah

pp. 80 - 97   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijmer.2020.245.7


Since the Arab Spring, Yemen became the center of worst humanitarian crisis in modern history. Due to current political turmoil, the ending of civil war is still uncertain. The fundamental causes of the current civil war in Yemen are the failure of the Yemeni government to address and resolve the socioeconomic frustration of ordinary citizens. Political marginalization, social disenfranchisement, economic collapse, and corrupt leaders are few reasons which led to the brutal civil war in Yemen. This systematic failure of government and intervention of regional players for their dominance created political uprising, violence, and institutional collapse. Thousands of civilians have died, millions of people had been displaced and millions are on the brink of starvation. Several solutions were proposed by introducing the federal system, decentralization of state’s power, improving basic infrastructure, negotiations with Houthis but none of these reforms implemented properly. The civil war in Yemen also affected regional players like KSA and Iran due to their intervention and indirectly support to proxies in the region. This conflict will remain a geopolitical front between Iran and Saudi Arabia for a long time. In short, this conflict has also affected the geostrategic interest of international and regional actors as well. The catastrophic situation in Yemen also caused substantial concerns for the International community. Due to the political transitional process and a domestic clash between state’s institutions led to such massive devastating conflict. This political upheaval, chaos, lawlessness, and conflict of interests exacerbated the existing division in this polarized country. International policymaking organizations also strived for establishing political settlements to knock-off Yemen civil war.

Keywords: Yemen's civil war, Regional intervention, worst Humanitarian crisis, Saudi-led coalition, Houthis movement, AQAP, Saudi-Iran proxy war, Political chaos

Geopolitical Development of the Middle East After World War II

Wafaa Kazem Abbas

pp. 98 - 110   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijmer.2020.245.8


After the Second World War, the researchers differed in determining the geography of the Middle East for political reasons and international requirements for the active forces that emerged, and geographical dimensions in the Middle East that constitute the heart region and other marginal regions, and the name has negative dimensions for the Arab world, as it is a means of disintegration and weakening the elements, and the research problem starts about the nature of the goals Geopolitics that the term Middle East conceals, then what is the role of regional powers in the Arab world to fix the pillars of this new term, while the research aims to clarify what is going on in the projects of fragmentation and dismantling of countries within the Arab region in particular, because the conflicts in the region ideological nature so must analyze ideas Jeopoltekeya and determine the nature of practices in the region.

Keywords: Geopolitics, Strategy, Middle East, Order-reginal, Order-International Relations.

The Impact of the Development of the Bankıng Sector On Economic Growth: The Case of Mena Countries

Nurullah Altıntaş

pp. 111 - 125   |  DOI: 10.29329/ijmer.2020.245.9


The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of banking sector development on economic growth in the period of 1991-2017 for eight MENA countries. Credit to the private sector were used as an indicator of financial depth to represent the development of the banking sector. In this study, in which eight MENA countries are discussed, new generation panel data analysis was applied for the relationship between variables. In order to determine the long-term relationship between the development of the banking sector and growth, a horizontal cross-section dependency test was used first. Panel bootstrap cointegration test developed by Wester Lund and Edgerton (2007), which takes into account this situation by determining the dependency between horizontal sections, was used. According to the result obtained, it is seen that the development of the banking sector and economic growth act together in the long term. As a result of cointegration, the coefficients of the variables were analyzed with the Augmented Mean Group estimator. However, the homogeneity of the slope coefficients for the entire panel was determined using the delta test. A 1% increase in the banking sector in MENA countries has been found to increase economic growth by 0.66%. It is seen that the development and deepening of the banking sector in economic growth policies will play an effective role in achieving the goal. In this context, increasing financial access and efficiency is thought to support economic growth.

Keywords: Financial Development, Economic Growth, MENA Countries, AMG Estimator.